Meditation Cushions from Amazon.com
Integrating 50+ Varieties
of Yoga Meditation
Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati
The sages of the
practice a variety of methods,
systematically moving inward, from
gross to subtle, to subtler, and subtle most.
Index of this web
4 stages of meditation with object
4 types of objective engrossment
Methods of meditation
Tranquility, Non-attachment, One-pointedness
10 indriyas God
Faith, energy, memory, samadhi, and knowing
4 attitudes towards people Breath
Subtle senses, States of mind, Dreaming and
Whatever is pleasant Smallest
5 kleshas Yamas
and niyamas 5 elements 5
Sushumna, Kriya, and Kundalini
4 functions of mind Turiya
See also these articles:
Types versus Stages of meditation
Five stages of meditation
Seven skills for meditation
Four steps of meditation
Four complementary practices
Learn a variety of
synergistic methods: For thousands of years,
the sages of the Himalayas have been running experiments in meditation
and systematizing that process. The student does not learn only one method of
meditation, but practices a variety of meditation methods (though
the processes are the same), systematically going from gross to subtle, to subtler, and finally to
Meditate at all
levels: In other words, the yoga meditation of the Himalayan
tradition is a complete meditation system, dealing with all the
levels of your being.
Exploring all of those levels involves meditation in yoga, tantra, and vedanta. Eventually
it leads to the direct
experience of the Absolute reality, the Self, that is not subject to
death, decay, or decomposition.
are parts of the whole: By contrast, most systems
or schools of meditation utilize only one method of meditation, such as
emphasizing either sensory awareness, breath, mental witnessing, or mantra,
while ignoring the others. In yoga meditation, these are not separate
schools of meditation. Rather, these individual meditations are parts of
the whole, or steps along the way, within the greater process of meditation that
systematically leads to the
Realization of the eternal center of consciousness.
A meditation object is
revealed and transcended: As one systematically
moves attention inward, a process of discrimination (viveka) occurs,
whereby the various objects of meditation are revealed as not-self
rather than Self, and are set aside as not being the goal of
meditation. One by one, object after object, level after level, is
experienced, explored, and seen to be not the ultimate object of
pursuit. Through this inner witnessing, non-attachment
gradually comes in relation to each of the objects, and each of the
levels, eventually leading to the realization of the eternal center of
meditation: Below is a summary of
the general categories of meditation, followed by some of the specific
methods within the yoga meditation system of the
Himalayan sages. This paper is rather brief and succinct, and thus,
the explanations may not have the depth for actual practice.
The complex is really
simple: While it can look complex,
it is important to remember that there is a simplicity
to the process, in that you gently move through only a few levels
or stages of practice on the journey to the eternal
center. It is not necessary that one do all of the meditations, at
each of the levels. The systematic journey inward, to and through the
levels, is the key to progress. It means knowing
yourself at all levels, not that you know each and every possible
object at each of those levels.
Categories or stages of Meditation:
Vast breadth and depth:
The categories described
below are extremely broad and extremely deep. Because of that, it can be
difficult to understand when reading this.
are many schools and systems
of meditation, but those many methods
deal with only a few stages of practice,
and only a few levels of reality.
All meditations are
within these few categories: The most important
point is that, of the many individual types of meditation,
regardless of school or system, all meditations are part of
these few levels or categories listed below, and that the process to enlightenment is one
of expanding awareness through these few layers.
With a little effort, you
can easily think of a few examples of different types of meditation and
see how, and where these fit in the systematic process of progressing
inward through the levels to the center of consciousness. Remember, the
process of yoga meditation of the Himalayan sages is thorough, yet has
an underlying simplicity.
Four types of meditation
with an object: There are four stages of meditation in which
there is a support, or object on which the mind rests during meditation
Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita are the four general categories
of meditation on an object, leading to the fully absorbed state
Meditation without an
object: Beyond those four is a stage of
meditation and Samadhi where there is no support on which the mind rests
are only four stages
of meditation on an object,
though there are
numerous choices of objects.
See also the web page on:
Five stages of meditation
an object of meditation (see
Yoga Sutra 1.17)
meditation relates to concentration on a gross object
while still accompanied with other activities of the mind. It
involves the co-mingling of three things: the object itself, the
word or name we give to the object, and knowledge related to the
object. There are many different gross objects on
which one might meditate at the Savitarka level.
meditation relates to subtle objects, after the gross
have been left behind. It is a deeper exploration involving the
subtleties of matter and the subtleties of the senses. There
are far fewer choices of subtle objects on which to meditate. As
stated in the Yoga Sutras, at some point, "the knowables
become few (4.31)." All of the complexity is seen to emerge from
meditation emphasizes the still subtler state of bliss in
meditation. In this state, the concentration is free from the
gross and subtle impressions that were at the levels of
Savitarka and Savichara.
meditation focuses on I-ness, which is even subtler, as
it relates to the I that is behind, or witness to all of
the other experiences.
an object of meditation (see
Yoga Sutra 1.18)
is meditation without an object, or objectless.
(Savitarka, Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita are all Samprajnata,
which is meditation with a support or object on which the mind
can focus. Asamprajnata is without such a support or
object on which the mind can rest. )
Four types of objective
engrossment: The first two stages listed above (Savitarka and
Savichara) have either a gross or subtle object. Within that, they each
have a further subdivision at those first two levels, once the mind has
been purified. When the mind is purified, there is not only
concentration, but also a sort of engrossment (Samapatti) occurs, which
is likened to a crystal taking on the color of the object it is near.
(see Yoga Sutras 1.40-1.51)
All meditations on an
object are within these four: All objective meditations, regardless of system or school of meditation
occur in one of these four. Beyond that are the deeper practices of
Sananda, Sasmita, and Asamprajnata.
are only four types
of engrossment on an object,
though there are
numerous choices of objects.
to gross objects
categories of meditation were mentioned above (Savitarka,
Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita). When the mind becomes
concentrated and the extraneous thought patterns begin to
subside (as a result of the persistent practice of one-pointed
meditation), the mind can then be not only concentrated, but
also more thoroughly engrossed in the object of meditation. It
is a sort of inner expansion of attention on the object of
meditation, and that engrossment is called Samapatti. The first
level of that engrossment is Savitarka Samapatti, meaning that
Vitarkas, or gross thoughts, still exist while the engrossment
is concentration on a gross object in which there are no
longer any extraneous gross level activities in the mind because of the
memory having been purified. Notice that with Savitarka, there was not only meditation on the object, but
also there were the other thought streams in the mind, though
these were not distracting due to vairagya (non-attachment).
Here, in Nirvitarka, these thought patterns have subsided.
to subtle objects
both Savitarka and Nirvitarka is Savichara. With Savichara, the
gross thoughts (Vitarkas) have subsided, but there are still subtle
thought patterns, which are called Vichara. Savitarka Samapatti
and Savichara Samapatti are similar processes, though one is on
gross thoughts, while the other relates to subtle
is concentration in
which there are no longer any extraneous gross or subtle
activities in the mind. This purity of mind comes through the
processes of meditation and non-attachment. In
Nirvichara Samapatti, the engrossed mind completely takes on the coloring
of the subtle object of meditation, much like a pure
crystal will take on the coloring of whatever color it is near. With
increasing mastery of Nirvichara, the eternal Self begins to
shine for the aspirant.
Other divisions or
categories of meditation are used to further describe the subtleties
between specific meditations:
means that the meditation on objects has become so subtle that
there is now, no longer a trace of the object. The realization
of that object has taken the meditation back to its unmanifest
nature. This Alinga state is in contrast to the Linga state, in
which there is trace, mark, or indicator, however subtle that
seed or without seed
meditation means meditation with seed (Sa means with;
bija means seed). The objects of meditation in the
four categories of Savitarka, Savichara, Nirvitarka, and
Nirvichara (described above) all have a seed form of each
object. Thus, they are called Sabija meditations. (Note that
Sabija and Nirbija are companion ways of differentiating
meditation means meditation without seed (Nir means without;
bija means seed). Thus, meditation without these
seeds of the object is called Nirbija. (Note that Sabija and
Nirbija are companion ways of differentiating meditation
observing, and observed
are three parts in the process of observation or meditation: 1)
an observer, 2) the process of observing, and 3) the object
being observed. When the mind takes on the qualities of an
object observed, this is Grahya meditation.
the mind wraps itself around the process of observing
rather than some other object, this is Grahana
the focus is neither on the object or the process, but rather,
the observer itself, this is Grahita meditation.
the mastery of the Nirvichara meditations described above, there
comes a meditative insight that is filled with Truth, Essence,
or Essential Knowing. That is called Ritambhara.
of the specific Methods and Objects of meditation:
Tables below show
methods and objects: In the tables below are
specific methods and objects practiced in Yoga Meditation. Many of the objects of
meditation described below are part of the process of purifying the
mind. These go along with, and support the deeper aspects of meditation
that eventually take you beyond all objects, to a more profound
meditation that pierces the levels of your being.
There are two
choices to make:
What is the object focused on, if any?
Where is the space where you hold that focus?
Two decisions to make:
In Yoga Meditation, there
are two important choices. First, is the choice of the object on which
you will meditate, and second,
is the choice of the location where you will focus your attention.
Object: The object of meditation may be one of many
gross or subtle objects. Each brings its own form of insight and
Space: The space of meditation may be the whole of the body, one
point, such as breath at the nostrils, or within one of the
Holding mind in one
space is a key: Regulating the mind by
holding it within one space, in addition to focusing on one object, is a
real key to progress in meditation. Training the mind to remain in a
space also trains it in regard to time; in other words, to be in both
the here as well as the now. It is that here and now concentration that reveals
the depths of meditation and samadhi.
Best to use a single
object: It is best to have a
single object of meditation that is always the final stage of your
meditation practice. For example, it may be the feel of breath at the
nostrils, or it might be a mantra, a religious symbol, or a point of
light that is attended to in a specific chakra, such as the heart center
or the eyebrow center. Or, the final object of your meditation sessions
may, for some time, be one of the many meditations described below. By
continually coming home to this point of meditation each time you sit,
meditation will deepen nicely.
Meditations below are
complementary: However, all of the
meditations below are complementary aspects of inner investigation, and
enhance your meditation on that one main object.
These stabilize and
purify mind: They stabilize and
purify the mind, and are extremely useful to practice. They may be done
as separate practices, at different times, or may be done at regular
meditation time, before your final stage of practice, where you meditate
on that single object that is always followed (such as breath, mantra,
religious symbol, or point of light mentioned above).
various objects of meditation
are explored and understood,
and then coordinated and integrated,
allowing attention to go ever subtler.
Keep in mind the few
categories: When reading through the
descriptions of the meditations below, it is good to gently keep in mind the
few categories of meditation described in the
section above. Then it is
easier to see the way in which the individual meditations gradually,
systematically move awareness inward, from gross to subtle, subtler, and
Remember there are only
a few levels: Also, recall the simple
principle of knowing yourself at all levels. When you start to look at
what it means to "know yourself," there can be an anxious
feeling from that complexity, even though there really is an underlying
simplicity. This simplicity emerges with time and practice.
Non-attachment, and One-pointedness
on the state of stable tranquility, which is Stithi. The
cultivation of this state in meditation is a key part of the two
main practices of yoga meditation, which are Abhyasa (practice
leading to Stithi) and Vairagya (non-attachment).
means non-attachment. Vairagya is the companion of Ekagra
(one-pointedness). With meditation for practicing Vairagya, the
meditator learns to consciously witness the habitual stream of
thoughts in the mind, learning to remain undisturbed,
unaffected, and uninvolved.
means one-pointedness. For meditation, the noisy, rambling,
troubled, or distracted mind needs to be stabilized and trained
to not get drawn into those mental actions. To stabilize the mind, one practices
one-pointed meditation, or Ekagra. There are many objects on
which the mind might be trained, and in the yoga meditation
tradition of the Himalayan sages this is chosen carefully
depending on the needs and predispositions of the particular
aspirant. It may be a gross, tangible object, a mantra, or a
subtle object or essence, and it may be religious or not
religious in nature.
are five types of meditation on the Karmendriyas. Karmendriya
meditation is the practice of observing, understanding and
training each the five means of expression known as the
karmendriyas. These five are like the five exit doors of one's
being (like doors in a building), and are the expression through:
1) elimination, 2) procreation, 3) motion, 4) grasping, and 5) communication
(or speech). They operate in sequence from the lower of the five
chakras. The aspirant consciously meditates on one of the five
means, noticing the way in which this gate operates between the
outer and inner worlds. The meditation is done both as meditation in
action and as seated meditation. (Some schools of meditation focus
on aspects of Karmendriya meditation under the name mindfulness
are five kinds of meditation on the Jnanendriyas. These are
meditation on the cognitive senses of: 1) smelling, 2) tasting,
3) seeing, 4) touching, and 5) hearing, which operate sequentially from the lower
five chakras. Each of these Jnanendriyas is an individual
process to be explored as a meditation practice. Meditation on
the Jnanendriya of touch, the sensory experience connecting the
mind and the body, is currently a popular form of meditation. The same
kind of meditation is also done on the other senses, and in
turn, the aspirant comes to see the way in which the five
Jnanendriyas, along with the five Karmendriyas are the means of
the indweller relating to the external world. Beyond meditation
on the ten Indriyas, the aspirant truly begins the inner journey
of meditation that is subtler than the senses.
on the Lord or creative force.
on faith or cultivating the certain feeling of following the
path with conviction. (Shradha and the 4 which follow are 5
companion practices, including Virya, Smriti, Samadhi, and
on strength, energy, or conviction to follow the spiritual life
and do the practices of meditation.
on memory of the feeling associated with previous attainments in
meditation or spiritual practice.
on the nature of the state of samadhi.
on the supreme knowledge arising from the practices of
meditation and samadhi.
on friendliness, love, and kindness, as if those feelings
are directed towards people who are also happy or
joyful. (This and the next three are 4 attitudes for
on compassion and mercy, as if towards those who are suffering,
or are experiencing
pain or sorrow.
on gladness, happiness, or delight, as if towards those who are virtuous,
generous, or benevolent.
on equanimity, or a positive disregard or indifference, as if in
relation to feelings towards those who are doing acts of evil, vice, or
on the energy of prana as expressed through exhalation,
inhalation, and transition between them.
senses, States of mind, Dreaming and sleep
on the nature of higher, subtler sense perception. It is
meditation on the nature of the subtle senses themselves, not
merely on the objects towards which senses might be
on a state of mind that is sorrow-less and pain free, and which
is lucid, illuminated or filled with light. This meditation is
sometimes experienced in the cave of the spiritual heart.
on the state of mind that no longer has any attachment. It may
be meditation on one's own mind, as if the mind were free of
attachment, or it may be meditation on the nature of another
person's mind whom is thought to have attained freedom from
on the states of dreaming (Swapna) and sleeping (Nidra). This is
not meditation on the content of those states. Rather, it is
meditation done in the waking state, where the object on which
the meditation is done is the flowing stream of the other two
levels of consciousness. It is this flow itself that is the
focus of meditation.
is pleasant, which brings calm and stability
on whatever the mind finds pleasant brings a state of calm and
stability to the mind. While this is a very broad practice, one
needs to choose wisely the object of meditation. The point of
this meditation is that the gentle focusing on a vast range of
objects will lead the mind in the direction of tranquility, and
thus bring the deeper meditations within reach.
smallest and the largest
on the smallest, most atom-like object. This ability of
meditation, along with the ability to meditate on the largest is
a sign of the mastery of the process of meditation.
on the largest, the infinite. This ability of meditation, along
with the ability to meditate on the smallest is a sign of the
mastery of the process of meditation.
on the colored or afflicted impressions in the field of the
mind. Through meditation the five forms of kleshas (below) are
first in an active form, then distanced somewhat, then
attenuated in strength, then brought back to a seed memory form,
and finally burned up in the inner fire of meditation.
means ignorance, not in the sense of stupidity, but of not
seeing, much like the ability to ignore, which is the
root of ignorance. Avidya is the field out of which the other
four Kleshas grow. Meditation on Avidya is on one of four
principles of ignorance: 1) mistaking the temporary to be
forever lasting, 2) the impure for the pure, 3) the painful for
the pleasureful, and 4) that which is not self to be the self.
Meditation on these four brings a discrimination between what
thoughts and actions are useful and not useful, as well as the
weakening of their coloring and control.
is a very fine level of individuality or ego, meaning the way
thought impressions become colored by I-am-ness, so as to
mistakenly think that this thought pattern or memory is related
to me. Meditation on Asmita gradually reveals the
individuality, standing alone, underneath all of the
attractions, aversions, and fears.
on the Klesha of attachment, or drawing towards. This meditation
reveals the way in which attachment is related to the desire to
repeat a previous action. By meditation on the process of
attachment itself, one gains an increasing degree of mastery
over Raga itself, which is a key to all of the individual
attachments that veil the Truth.
on the Klesha of aversion, or pushing away. Aversion is related
to the desire to avoid the repetition of a previous consequence.
Similar to the case with the attachments, meditation on the
process of aversion also brings a mastery over Dvesha, and a
reduction of the veiling over Truth.
on the clinging to life, or the associated fear of death. The
first four Kleshas, colorings, or afflictions of ignorance,
I-ness, attachment, and aversion build a matrix of
self-identity. Meditation on this clinging to life and fear of
death brings a freedom and willingness to more thoroughly
meditate on, and reduce the negative effects of the other
Kleshas. To be aware of, to meditate on, and to reduce such fear
is the first step of the rest of the process.
Yamas are the practices of non-harming (Ahimsa), truthfulness
(Satya), non-stealing (Asteya), resting in the creative force
(Brahmacharya), and non-possessiveness (Aparigraha). These are
not only practiced in daily life, but are each explored
internally in Yoga meditation.
Niyamas are the observances of purity of mind and body (Saucha),
cultivation of contentment (Santosha), training the senses
(Tapas), self enquiry (Svadhyaya), and surrender (Ishvara
Pranidhana). These too are not only practiced, but are also
objects for exploration in Yoga meditation.
is done on each of the five gross elements, or Bhutas,
which constitute the body. The elements are earth (Prithivi),
water (Apas), fire (Agni/Tejas), air (Vayu), and space
is also done on each of the five subtle elements, or
Tattvas. These are the more internal counterparts, and source of
the gross elements, or Bhutas, which constitute the body.
The elements are earth (Prithivi), water (Apas), fire
(Agni/Tejas), air (Vayu), and space (Akasha).
flows in five main flows in the subtle body. Each of these are
objects of meditation and inquiry. They are Prana Vayu, Udana
Vayu, Apana Vayu, Vyana Vayu, Samana Vayu. When the universal
energy force of Prana enters the physical body, it divides into
five parts, or airs (one of the five elements of earth, water,
fire, air, and space). Each of these five are explored as
separate objects in Yoga meditation. The Vayus have a depth of
insight that can only be attained from meditation.
on Prana Vayu involves the area between the heart and the throat
and involves anything coming into the body, including
inhalation, swallowing, taking in of sensory impressions, or
assimilation of food.
on Udana Vayu is in the opposite direction of Prana Vayu, and
involves exhalation and upward expulsion, including the force
on Apana Vayu is below the navel to the area of the rectum. It
is the life force that has to do with the ability of the system
to eliminate or throw off what is no longer useful.
on Vyana Vayu is throughout the body, as it has no fixed
location. It is the energy that coordinates all of the other
functions of the body, including senses, movement, muscles, and
on Samana Vayu focuses on the area between the navel and the
heart, and controls the processes related to digestion. Like
separating nutrients and waste from food, it also separates
useful and not useful thoughts.
Kriya, and Kundalini
is the central energy channel within the subtle body, that goes
from the root chakra upwards to the crown of the head.
Meditation on Sushumna is an extremely important part of Tantra
and Yoga meditation, and is sometimes taught under the names Kriya yoga
or Kundalini yoga. One may meditate by flowing the mind with the
breath between two or more chakras, or the whole length of the
Sushumna. Some forms visual shapes of energy flow, such as
figure eights or elipses.
meditation in Tantra involves meditation on the many energy
channels of the subtle body, including Sushumna. Within the Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali,
Kriya yoga includes training the senses,
inner exploration and meditation on mantras, and surrender into
the divine or creative source.
are many forms of meditation on Kundalini energy, but a key
feature of them all is the meditation either on the Sushumna, or
in preparation for that. All of these ultimately lead to
meditation in the higher chakras, between the eyebrow center
(Ajna) and the crown (Sahasrara).
on the mantra OM (AUM) and its meanings.
Hum is called the universal mantra, and means, "I am that I
am." The sound "so" is remembered silently with
inhalation, and the sound "hum" is remembered silently
with exhalation. If you cup your hands at your mouth and an ear,
so as to hear your physical breath flow at the nostrils, you
will notice that the inhalation sounds like "so" and
the exhalation sounds like "hum". While you want to
breathe silently during meditation, you remember the sounds in
the field of mind. It is because all of us naturally breathe
that the mantra is universal.
may be used from one's meditative tradition, religion, or other
or seed mantras are single syllable sounds that are conducive to
meditation, such as the seed sounds that go with the various
may be given from one's meditative tradition or teacher. Some
give mantra initiation like a prescription matching the
student's characteristics. Some mantra initiation involves the
transmission of energy along with the mantra, thus empowering
the mantra, like planting a seed that can grow with practice.
Such a mantra can lead the attention through all of the layers
of one's being, ultimately to the source of consciousness from
which it arose. Mantra is used in stages.
First, it is a gross word with meaning (uttered aloud or
silently). Then, it naturally becomes a constant repetition.
Then, the mantra becomes a feeling, and finally it leads to a
constant, pervasive awareness.
Meditation is done at any of the major chakras, and these
meditations can be at gross or subtle levels. The
meditation may involve images, sensations, sound, or
chakras each have a Bija or seed vibration, as well as secondary
mantras. The Bija mantras for the seven major charkras are as
follows: 1st=Lam, 2nd= Vam, 3rd=Ram, 4th=Yam, 5th=Ham, 6th=OM,
7th=Silence after OM
and the four functions of mind
on the inner instruments (Antahkarana) includes the four
functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). This is
a subtler meditation than that on the Karmendriyas and
Jnanendriyas. It is also subtler than meditation on visualized
gross objects or the breath. Here, the aspirant has delved into
the depths of the mind, not merely to meditate on the objects
flowing in the stream, but to explore the mechanisms themselves
by which the thought process occurs. It brings one right to
the edge of Self-realization. This is an important part of
Vedanta and Yoga meditation.
is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara,
and Buddhi). It is the lower mind, which processes thinking, and
which is the operator of the ten senses, the Karmendriyas and
Jnanendriyas described in a meditation method above.
is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara,
and Buddhi). Chitta is the memory bank, which stores impressions
and experiences. To meditate on Chitta is to cultivate the
stance of witnessing the stream of thought patterns rising from
Chitta and falling back into it.
is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara,
and Buddhi). Ahamkara is the I-maker. It is like the ego, except
not meaning egotistical. It is the strong wave of awareness that
declares, "I am!" Meditation on Ahamkara takes one to
the awareness of this I-am-ness, independent of the attachments
and aversions stored in the Chitta.
is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara,
and Buddhi). At a more gross level Buddhi is the aspect of mind
that knows, decides, judges, and discriminates. Meditation on
this process of discrimination (Viveka) is extremely important.
At the very subtle stages of meditation, Buddhi is discovered to
be the function that separated the individual from the true Self
in the first place.
fourth state of consciousness
is the fourth state of consciousness, beyond waking, dreaming,
and deep sleep. It is the eternal consciousness that permeates
and is witness to these other three. Meditation on Turiya is
more of a process of Realization than of one-pointed meditation,
such as meditation on an object.
This site is devoted
to presenting the ancient Self-Realization path of the Tradition of
the Himalayan masters in simple, understandable and beneficial ways,
while not compromising quality or depth. The goal of our sadhana or
practices is the highest Joy that comes from the Realization in
direct experience of the center of consciousness, the Self, the
Atman or Purusha, which is one and the same with the Absolute
Reality. This Self-Realization comes through Yoga meditation of the
Yoga Sutras, the contemplative insight of Advaita Vedanta, and the
intense devotion of Samaya Sri Vidya Tantra, the three of which
complement one another like fingers on a hand. We employ the
classical approaches of Raja, Jnana, Karma, and Bhakti Yoga, as well
as Hatha, Kriya, Kundalini, Laya, Mantra, Nada, Siddha, and Tantra
Yoga. Meditation, contemplation, mantra and prayer finally converge
into a unified force directed towards the final stage, piercing the
pearl of wisdom called bindu, leading to the Absolute.